Do you know all the types of rice?

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Do you know all the types of rice

There are many types of rice that are distinguished by the type of processing, color, aroma, size or shape. If you like this nutritious and tasty cereal, you have to know everything about its many presentations.

Do you know all the types of rice

It is estimated that in the world there are more than 80,000 varieties of rice , which are divided into three large groups: short, medium or long grain rice. But this division is only the beginning, as each rice can be processed in several ways.

THE 5 TYPES OF RICE ACCORDING TO THE PROCESSING

From the rice plant (Orzya sativa) the seeds are obtained with their husk. This rice is threshed and dried, but it is not ready for distribution and consumption until it has been processed. Depending on the type of processing, several kinds of rice are produced:

1. BROWN OR WHOLE GRAIN RICE

After removing the outer husk, the grain retains the whole germ and the bran (fiber) layer that surrounds the starch endosperm.

This rice is the most nutritious because it is the most abundant in protein, fiber, vitamins, minerals and antioxidant polyphenol compounds.

2. SEMI-BROWN RICE

The bran that covers the endosperm is made up of layered rods. The outermost is the pericarp, followed by several layers of integuments. Well, semi-whole rice is the result of removing the pericarp.

This rice contains less fiber than the whole grain, but it preserves practically all the proteins, vitamins and minerals.

3. PARBOILED, STEAMED OR “PARBOILED” RICE

To make parboiled rice, the whole grain is briefly hydrated with the husk and then steamed under pressure. Then the shell is removed.

During this process the vitamins and minerals of the outer layers partially penetrate the endosperm (starch), so that although the bran is removed, the pericardium and the integuments retain up to 80% of micronutrients, such as vitamin B2.

Three of its great advantages are that it is prepared quickly (20 minutes), it preserves a loose texture and part of the starch becomes resistant, that is, with qualities similar to the prebiotic fiber.

It is a nutritionally and culinary interesting presentation, but it is less nutritionally dense than whole grain, especially when it comes to fiber, protein, and polyphenolic antioxidant compounds.

4. WHITE RICE

To give the rice a white appearance, the outer husk and germ are removed and, with it, the proteins, 60% of the vitamins, including most of the B-complex vitamins, and two-thirds of the fiber.

White rice has only one advantage over brown rice and that is that it has a longer shelf life. As we currently do not need to accumulate food for months or years, this property is no longer an argument in favor of white rice.

5. QUICK COOKING RICE

Quick cooking rice is usually white rice that is precooked once and then dried again. This means it can be quickly re-cooked, but has lost both nutrients and flavor during precooking.

LONG GRAIN RICES

Rice varieties of long grana (Oryza sativa ssp. Indica) are called rice varieties whose grains are 6 to 8 millimeters long and have an elongated shape. They stay fluffy and grainy when cooked. Long grain rice varieties include:

  • Basmati Rice: Basmati means “fragrant” in Hindi, indicating its aromatic taste. Basmati rice originally comes from Afghanistan and is grown at the foot of the Himalayas. Varieties including Kernel Basmati (Pakistan) or Haryana (India).
  • Patna rice: It is a relative of basmati rice. It comes from the Indian city of Patna and is characterized by a comparatively hard grain. It is very suitable for dishes in which the rice must have a consistency. The grain is very long, thin and almost transparent due to polishing, but sadly it is also relatively poor in nutrients.
  • Jasmine rice: It is grown mainly in Thailand, but also in Vietnam and Italy. It smells pleasantly of jasmine and, unlike many other varieties, it has its own flavor (similar to that of roasted walnuts). Although it is a long grain rice, it is a bit sticky. It goes well with all dishes and is representative of Thai cuisine.
  • Black Rice – This long grain rice is whole grain. It is of Chinese origin and is said to have been reserved for the emperor. Now it is also grown in Italy (nerone rice) and Austria. Black rice has a boneless flavor.
  • Sadri rice: Iranian Sadri rice is considered the best rice in the world. The Gilan region in northern Iran on the Caspian Sea is its main cultivation area. It is a variety of rice with a long and strong grain that glows white. Its grains develop a soft and very creamy core during preparation and are characterized by an excellent aroma. El Sadri has strict export conditions, making it difficult to obtain.
  • Wild rice: It’s not really rice, it just looks like it. The zizania that produces this long, dark grain grows on the banks of rivers, lakes, or ponds in North America and East Asia. It has more protein than real rice: 12-18% of its weight, for 2-3% of the rice.

MEDIUM AND SHORT GRAIN RICES

Round grain rice (Oryza sativa ssp. Japonica) includes varieties whose grains measure less than 5 millimeters and have a round or oval shape. Medium grain rice (Oryza sativa ssp. Javanica) has a similar shape, but can be between 5.2 and 6 millimeters long.

Compared to long grain rice, short grain rice has more amylopectin. Amylopectin is a fairly insoluble starch that gelatinizes when cooked. Therefore, short grain rice is sticky rice.

  • Risotto rice: For a risotto to obtain its typical creamy consistency without losing its firmness, Italian varieties of starchy rice are in demand, such as Arborio, vialone Nano or carnaroli. Risotto rice can be short-grain or medium-grain. It is still grown mainly in Italy.
  • Sushi rice: It comes from Japan and is called kome there. It is small-grained and particularly rich in starch, which gives it the sticky consistency needed for sushi. It is used not only for sushi but also for other dishes. Sushi rice has a sweet taste of its own.
  • Bombay rice for paella: The so-called bomb rice is grown especially in the Ebro delta, the Valencia lagoon and Calasparra in Murcia and is traditionally used for paella. Compared to other varieties of round grain rice, it has a lower starch content and therefore remains firmer and grainy when cooked.
  • Glutinous rice: It is mainly used for sweet rice dishes (for example, rice pudding). When cooked, it releases its starch, leaving it very soft and losing its grainy shape.
  • Red brown rice: There are six known varieties of this rice specialty. For example, Philippine Red Mountain or jungle rice, which is particularly rich in nutrients. Rice grains are red on the outside and inside. There is also the red rice of the Camargo, grown in France. Its red outer skin is due to cultivation in clay soil. Red rice should not be confused with “fermented red rice,” a dietary supplement used to lower cholesterol.
  • Mocha rice: It is a Japanese medium grain rice with a sweet taste. It is sticky and is used mainly in sweet recipes and cakes. Today it is also grown in the United States.

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